Two means of rhetoric; persuasive means and description/analysis.
1. Word figures -- which work with the meaning of words or the position of words in the sentence
2. Idea Figures -- which work with the shaping and organization of information.
Visual/verbal comparison - a comparison that starts with verbal signs and is continued with visual signs.
Visual/verbal analogy - a relatum expressed verbally is paralleled by similar return expressed visually.
Visual/verbal metonymy - a relatum indicated by verbal signs is visualized by signs in a real relationship to the verbal relatum; e.g. case instead of effect, tool instead of activity, producer instead of product.
Visual/verbal chain - a topic begun in words and continued and completed visually.
Visual/verbal negation - verbal signs negate what is shown visually.
Visual synecdoche - a relatum expressed verbally is visualized by a part representing the whole, or vice-versa.
Verbal specification - a visual sign accompanied by only as much text s is necessary for its comprehension.
Visual substitution - one visual sign replaced by another because of its formal characteristics.
Syntactic climax and anticlimax - a purely visual figure.
Visual/verbal parallelism - visual and verbal signs representing the same relatum.
Associative mediation - one verbal sign out of a series is illustrated by a series of visual signs, which lead, in turn, to another relatum of the verbal signs.
TYPE + IMAGE
Language is a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings through signs.
As graphic designers, we are able to manipulate our subject matter through means of sounds, imagery, visual gestures, or marks.
Simile - a comparison or parallel between two unlike things.
[The grade on the term paper was like a slap in the face.]
Personification - the representation of inanimate object or abstractions by a human image.
[Cupid signifies love.]
Anthropomorphism - attributing human traits, thoughts, action, and speech to animals or even inanimate objects.
[The white rabbit from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.]
Metonymy - useing the name of one thing to stand for another, related thing.
[When a newscaster states that "the White House said today".]
Pun - the phenomena that one symbol can have two or more meanings. It is the use of words in a way that suggests different meanings or plays upon similar or identical images but different meanings.
Hyperbole - exaggeration for the sake of emphasis.
Litotes the opposite of hyperbole. An understatement using a negative as a way to express an affirmative. ["He is not a bad photographer" to mean that he is a good photographer.]
Antithesis - the sharp contrast between two opposing ideas or thoughts to intensify their difference. [The revolution promised freedom but brought slavery" is more intense than "The revolution brought slavery".]
Irony - a deliberate contrast, presenting the opposite of what would be expected.
[If a fire truck caught on fire and burned.]
Allegory - a symbolic representation. A literal device or character is used as a symbol for an idea or principle. [The Statue of Liberty is an allegorical figure for freedom. The United States is signified by the allegorical figure, Uncle Sam.]